Counter-game campaigns were initiated and sustained by the combination of evangelical reformers and pragmatic politicians.

This was the age of populist reform, rural stirrings of righteousness, and anti-drinking feelings that were culminating in the passage of the Volstead Act, which forbade the sale of liquor.

However, the confluence of moral reform and political expediency was evident in the New York City campaign about political games.

Dr. Charles Parkhurst, a pastor of the Madison Square Presbyterian Church, had long fenced against the evils of the pulpit game and his position as president of the society for crime prevention.

The good doctor was generally considered a nutty who had been sullied reputation due to his presence in a “nature dance” where the naked girls of the ward played jump.

However, Dr. Parkhurst’s society found an ally in William Travis Jerome, a minor justice who enthusiastically joined the gambling crusade not only by issuing authorizations against houses of politics but by accompanying the attacking parties.

With the sincere help of Dr. Eligieron Parkhurst and his members of the society, Judge Jerome, promising to close policy games, New York District Attorney in 1901.

A month after his election, with the help of the new district lawyer, the agents of the anti-gambling society attacked the offices of Al Adams, the acknowledged king of political games and the multi-head of the political union. the city called the central organization.

They arrested and were thrown to Adams. As charged more with the game, he hoped to plead guilty and pay a small fine.

They determined to make an example of Adams and informed District Attorney Jerome, however, to the press that a prison sentence for the king of politics would be the first discharge in a vigorous anti-gambling campaign.

After protracted legal proceedings in 1903, Adams was sentenced to eighteen months in sing prison. This sentence effectively discouraged gaming operators from politics in New York and elsewhere.

After his release from prison, Adams did not return to writing politics. There is no other individual to gain control of the politics he played; other cities cracked down in politics games, and many operators left the business for the other game adventure.

According to Asbury, a noted historian and the author of Sucker Progress, “by 1905, the playing of politics was definitely declining, and within another ten years was no longer an important phase of the American game. The”

opposition to the game was a by-product of these socio-historical trends.

Although the reformers failed to stamp out the game, they succeeded in driving the underground games, denying them respectability and thus delaying significant participation from the middle class.